1 frame = 0.063s

Horizontal Velocity:
Position (x-axis) (cm)
Velocity (cm/s)
To find the velocity I used the formula V = d/t

The average velocity of the object is 238.1 cm/s

Blurriness of the video should be taken into account when finding the position of the object.

Vertical Veocity:
Position (y-axis) (cm)
Velocity (cm/s)

There is an increase in the velocity as the object moves downward, meaning that there is an acceleration (gravity = -9.81 m/s^2).

1. How are change and continuity a part of science?
Throughout all of time, changes have been made to the thoughts of how the world works. Ideas about everything are constantly changing, "the motivations and thinking patterns of the people who contributed to our understanding of the motions of the planets were vastly different from our modern-day point of view." The fact these ideas were and are continuously changing relates directly to science because new ways of figuring how the universe works are constantly being transforming into new conceptions of the world.

2. Although Ptolemy's system is no longer the accepted view of the universe, was his system "unscientific" by modern standards of science? Explain.
Ptolemy's system of the universe was not "unscientific" because he used mathematics to create his system. His system was supported by the fact that the nature of the world is based on mathematical relationships; that's all his system was, how all the planets and the sun are related to each other.

3. Was Copernicus's system an improvement over Ptolemy's? Why?
Copernicus's system was not much of an over-all improvement, however there were very important factors about his system that were a step in the right direction, as opposed to Ptolemy's system, such as the planets all traveling around the sun. He even used some of the concepts that were used for the geocentric system; he supported his model with about the same number of epicycles as Ptolemy's model had. Copernicus also had some flaws in his system as well, like the fact that he proposed that the sun wasn't in the center, but that there was an empty point in space near the sun.

4. In what ways have scientist's preconceptions gotten in the way of science?
Many assumptions were made that prevented the progression of science. The Greeks believed that circles and spheres were the "perfect" shapes and that the planets traveled in perfect circles. Also during Copernicus's time, many people were skeptical about the idea of a heliocentric system because the geocentric model had been the ideal conception of the universe for centuries.

5. A common conception is that scientists work alone and in isolation from other ideas. Do you agree? Why?
I disagree 100% with this conception. Scientists work based off of the ideas of other scientists who have related material in what they are studying. Every science is connected and based off of one another, Copernicus's work was developed after studying that of Ptolemy. Scientific ideas are greatly influenced by others and evolve over time.

6. How does technology affect progress in science?
Technology has an extremely great affect on the progression of science. New inventions that can be used to further study different fields of science, such as the telescope, centrifuge, even the computer and calculator.Technology allows scientists to be more precise in their work, and allows them to ask further questions and collect new data that they never could have gotten before. Technology has a large influence on scientific progression.


Centripetal applications of Newton's Laws, cars on curved roads as well, detailed application of Newton's Universal Law of gravity, circular orbits as well as elliptical orbits
Kinetic Friction: when an object slides across a surface, creating friction; Ffr = µkFN
Coefficient of Static Friction: a constant of proportionality, (µk), between the friction force and normal force that depends on the nature of the two surfaces in contact
Static Friction: a force parallel to the two surfaces that can arise even when they are not sliding; Ffr = µsFN
Coefficient of Static Friction: constant of proportionality, (µs), between the friction force and normal force when the object is stationary
Radial Acceleration: acceleration in the radial direction, (towards the center); aR = v2/r
Newton’s Second Law for the Radial Component: ∑FR = maR = mv2/r
Drag Force: resistive force, depends on the velocity of the object; FD = -bv
Terminal Velocity: a point where an object no longer increases speed; vT = mg/b
Law of Universal Gravitation: Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; F = G (m1m2/r2); F1 = F1on2 + F1on3 + F1on4 + … + F1on(n) = n∑i=2F1i
Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion: (T1/T2)2 = (s1/s2)3
Gravitational Field: surrounds every body that has mass, and this field permeates all of space, defined as gravitational force per unit mass at any point in space; g = F/m; g = (1/m)G(mM/r2) = G(M/r2)


1. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between a 12kg crate and the floor is .3, what horizontal force is required to move the crate at a steady speed across the floor?
A. 20N
B. 35N
C. 40N
D. 45N

2. If a car is trveling at a speed of 30m/s around an off-ramp with a radius of 50m, what is thecar's radial acceleration?
A. 10m/s2
B. 12m/s2
C. 18m/s2
D. 25m/s2

3. How much force would it take to move a 10kg box if the coefficient of static friction is .5?
A. 30N
B. 35N
C. 50N
D. 55N

4. If a .5kg ball attatched to a 1m log piece of string of negligible mass is spun around in a circle at a speed of 3m/s, calculate the tension force inthe string.
A. 4.5N
B. 3N
C. 5.6N
D. 3.8N

5. Our sun rotates about the axis of the galaxy (M ≈ 4x1041kg) at a distance of about 3x104 light years (1ly = 3x108m/s x 3.16x107 s/y). What is the period of our orbital motion about the center of the Galaxy?

A. 2x106 years

B. 2x107 years

C. 2x108 years

D. 2x109 years

A solid disk with mass M and a radius R are used as a pulley. A small block of mass m is attached to a string, the other end of which is attached to the pulley and wrapped around it several times. The block is released from rest and takes a time t to fall the distance D to the floor.
a. Calculate the linear accelerationa of the falling block in terms of the given quantities.
b. What quantities should be usd on the x and y axis and graphed in order to best determine the acceleration of the block? Explain.