• Static Electricity: Also known as the “Amber Effect”.
    • o Electricity comes from the Greek word elektron, which means amber, which is a petrified tree resin. If you rub an amber rod with a piece of cloth, then it will attract pieces leaves and dust.
  • Unlike charges attract; Like charges repel
  • Law of Conservation of Electric Charge: The net amount of electric charge produced in any process is zero.
  • Ion: When an atom has a net positive or negative charge.
  • Polar: Although the molecule is neutral, the charge is not distributed uniformly.
  • Conductors: Allows charge to move around (iron nails).
  • Nonconductors or insulators: Do not allow charge to move around (wood).
  • Coulomb’s Law:
    • o F = k (Q1Q2/ r2)
    • o K is a proportionality constant that is equivalent to 8.988 x 109 N ∙ m2/ C2 and is based in terms of the permittivity through free space.
  • Electrostatics: The study is charges at rest
  • Electric Field: The force exerted on a tiny positive test charge at that point divided by the magnitude of the test charge.
  • Electric Field Lines: Lines drawn to indicate the direction of the force due to the given field on a positive test charge.
    • o The closer the electric field lines are together, the stronger the electric field in that region.
  • Electric Field and Conductors
    • o The electric field in a conductor is zero in the static situation.
    • o Any net charge on a conductor distributes itself on the surface.
    • o The electric field is always perpendicular to the surface outside of the conductor.
  • If an object having an electric charge q is at any point in space where the electrical field is E, then the force of the object is given by F= q E
  • If the electric field direction is perpendicular to a surface, the electrical flux is defined as the product of the area and the electrical field.
Multiple Choice

Multiple Choice
  1. 1. Which of the following materials is the best conductor?
    1. a. Silicon
    2. b. Carbon
    3. c. Germanium
    4. d. Wood
    5. e. Iron Nail
  2. 2. A positively charged plastic rod is brought close to a neutrally charged rod, so what happens?
    1. a. Nothing
    2. b. The charges reverse
    3. c. The positives inside the rod are attracted to the positive rod
    4. d. The negatives inside the rod are repelled by the positive rod
    5. e. The negatives are attracted and the positives are repelled
  3. 3. What is force felt between two particles with charges of 1 coulomb with a radius of 1 m in between them?
    1. a. 1 N
    2. b. 10 N
    3. c. 6.7 x 10 8 N
    4. d. 9.0 x 10 9 N
    5. e. 1000 N
  4. 4. What is the flux of a rectangular surface with dimensions of 3 m X 2 m as it is parallel the electric field of 200 N/C?
    1. a. 4.0 N∙m2/C
    2. b. 10 N∙m2/C
    3. c. 100 N∙m2/C
    4. d. 0 N∙m2/C
    5. e. 5 N∙m2/C
  5. 5. What is the flux of a rectangular surface with dimensions of .1 M x .2 M as it comes at an angle of 30 degrees to the surface and had a uniform charge of 200 N/C?
    1. a. 4.0 N∙m2/C
    2. b. 10 N∙m2/C
    3. c. 3.5 N∙m2/C
    4. d. 0 N∙m2/C
    5. e. 5.0 N∙m2/C

Open Response
Two positive charges with charges of 5 Coulombs lie on a rectangular surface.
  1. a. What is the force on each charge on one another if the distance in between is 1 m?
  2. b. What is the electric field that each charge creates?
  3. c. Draw the field lines coming from each charge.
  4. d. If the electric field is perpendicular to the surface and the dimensions are .35 M X .80 M, what is the electric flux?
  5. e. What is the field comes at an angle of 45 degrees to the surface?

Using the Quicktime video application, the video can be seen using frame by frame. With the video, 15 frames had made up one second of time.
The ball first appears exactly between 5 seconds and 5.07 seconds.

Time (second)
Position of x-axis (centimeters)
Position of y-axis (centimeter)

This data in the tables were obtained from the video, in which the ball was moving, so a blur was created. Therefore, it is difficult to tell the actual position of the ball, but some estimating was used. The times and positions were taken and used to create the two position vs time graphs.

The top graph is for the top table. A line of best fit was taken for the red dots, which represent the position in the x-axis. The line is linear, and for a position vs. time graph, that means that there is a constant velocity.

The bottom graph is for the bottom table. As the ball moves away from its original position, the distance travelled between each of the time increments increases. The graph is a distance vs. time graph, and since the ball started at a higher position, the ball is moving towards ground level, zero. Additionally, the line is a curve, and on a distance vs. time graph, a curved line indicates an acceleration.

By analyzing the two lines from the two graphs, we can draw conclusions about the nature of the ball while in projectile motion. The ball, as it moves in the x component, has a constant velocity because of the linear line. Therefore, the total distance can be calculated through Distance = velocity vs. time. The ball, as it moves in the y component, has a constant acceleration because of the curved line. Therefore, the total distance can be calculated through y=yo + vy + 1/2 at^2.

1. How are change and continuity a part of science?

Science is always an ongoing process. Science is a collaboration of everyone from history. When an idea is put forth, others tests the statements validity to see if it is worthy of being accepted. When it is deemed true and acceptable, it becomes a fact, a law of science. Everyone who comes after it believes and continues to believe it until they die. Continuity is a part of science because it is true regardless of its time in history and its place in the world, just like Kepler's Laws of Newton's Laws. This things are continuous because we still believe them to be true and will believe that until proven wrong by science. Ironcially, science is also always changing as well. When conceptions fall under the weight of skeptism, new ideas are hypothesized and put forth to be tested again. When the Plato proposed the idea that the planets move in a circular path, many believed it was true because they did not want to challenge the idea that a circle is perfection. When this idea was challenged, the idea of the heliocentric model, that the planets followed an elliptical path, appeared through Copernicus' proposal. He supported his ideas with data and observations to gain more support. Nowadays, it is accepted to be true and has been proven. Change and continuity work simultaneously to improve science as a whole.

2. Although Ptolemy's system is no longer the accepted view of the universe, was his system "unscientific" by modern standards of science? Explain.

Ptolemy's view of the universe was "the planets move in little circles called epicycles, while the epicycles themselves move on larger cycles around the earth". By using this idea, he could account for the observed retrograde motion of the planets, as observed from Earth. Additionally, it had incorporated the belief that the planets and moons were encompassed in perfrect crystal spheres that were not flawed in anyway. His views were not questioned because he had said that the motion of the planets and stars were governed by those spheres, so it was just automatically accepted as true. Ptolemy's system would be considered "unscientific" by modern standards of sciences because there was no mathematical support behind his ideas. Modern standards use data, observations, and mathematics to support their theories and idea, but Ptolemy's ideas just played on common beliefs that other's believed to be true. People did not question the church and their beliefs. They believed that circles wee natural, so they were right. His idea had incorporated circles, so they were right.

3. Was Copernicus's system an improvement over Ptolemy's? Why?

Copernicus' system was an improvement over Ptolemy's system because it had made many improvements and proposed a revolutionary idea that challanged the accepted ways. He was able to establish three laws that were undoubtly true and was able to mathematical support his observations, and not use common beliefs to gain support. He had improved the idea of retrograde motion by proposing that in one year "the Earth travels all the way around the sun (thus going in two oppositve directions), while a planet like Jupiter only goes through a small part of its orbit (always in the same direction). So, loocked at from the earth, Jupiter appears to change direction but it really doesn't." His idea had proved a simple solution, with solid, mathematical evidence, Evidence that Ptolemy could not provide. Additionally, his challenging and innovating ways would begin a revolutionary way of looking at science, which wouldlead to further advances.

4. In what ways have scientists' preconceptions gotten in the way of science?

Scientists' preconceptions gotten in the way of science because they have laid a false foundation in which others are attempting to build on, but will surely crumble on top of. Other scientists are using older concepts, which are inaccurate, to support their own ideas, but are being demonstrated to be wrong. Kepler would repeatedly attempt to support his observation through calculations, but using the view of a circular path had blocked him from continuing. Preconceptions had believed that the planets were perfect spheres, while Galileo had used his telescope to show that it had crates and mountains. Others had believed in the Aristotelian way of the universe and disagreed with him, even attempting to gain the support of the Church. Due to Aristotle's conception in the past, he had gained a following that would argue to hinder Galileo. They had used the Church to persecute Galilio and reject the ideas of Copernicanism and heliocentrism. New ideas needed to be sprout from themselves, while "the old physics, along with the old cosmology, needed to be swept away in order to make progress."

5. A common conception is that scientists work alone and in isolation from other ideas. Do you agree? Why?

The common conception that scientists work alone in isolation is not an accurate depiction of how science works. "Different people contribute different buts and pieces, good ideas are mized with bad ideas, observations are improved, new ideas are invented, and the good ideas are slowly sifted out from the ideas that don't work." Science is a collaboration among the scientific community to always improve what is known and gain further knowledge. We help eachother improve and bring the advances to the forefront. Johannes Kepler had found a new relationship, but did not have the ability to support his observations, but used the help of Tycho Brahe. Brahe had instruments tha thad allowed him to attain the "highest precision attainable" during his time. When he had died, he had left his data to Kepler to use for his own gains. They had come together across many countries to help support an idea. They were synthesizing their abilities to further the scientifc community.

6. How does technology affect progress in science?

Technology plays a vital role in the progress of science. Technology has allow scientists to show support for their ideas and concepts, while also disproving others. The improvement of the telelscope had allowed Galileo to show that the moon was not aperfect sphere, but filled with mountains and craters. Other inventions had allowed Brahe to show that comets were moving through space to demonstrate that crystal spheres were a false view. Technology has allowed scientists to observe what could not be observed, and explore what was never been engaged. It has allowed scientists to communicate globally, spread their information with one another, and form an internationally community, in which everyone can help on another for the better.