ok. this is the vid that mike f. and i made. :]



i doanloaded quicktime (or so it said) and then i tried opening the video and quicktime wasnt an option. so then i tried windows media player and the time didnt go to enough places (only went to whole seconds). and then i resorted to using windows movie maker which allowed for 5 points. its better than nothing. so, this will most likely effect my analysis. oh and by the way, i analyzed alexis' video.





So, from my data, you see the horizontal displacement increasing as the vertical displacement decreases. This is correct as the apple flew through the frame from the top right down to the bottom left. The horizontal velocity is increasing and then increases slower and decreases a little. The vertical velocity is negative because of the direction. It increases downward though.


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1. How are change and continuity a part of science?
All of these science discoveries mentioned in this packet help out the others. As new ideas are presented, old ones can change. An example would be how it wasn't Galileo who invented the telescope. He took it from there and perfected it and turned it to the night sky and made many important discoveries, such as discovering the mountains and craters on the moon, discovering that Venus had phases like the moon, and discovering Jupiter. Another example of how change and continuity are important parts of science would be how Tycho Brahe recorded the planetary positions to the highest precision at the time and observed the paths of comets and saw that they were definately celestial objests that went through the orbits with the planets, proving that the crystal spheres of Aristotle were false. After Brahe died, however, Kepler kept the measurements in his possession and was able to use them to make the important discovery that the planets moved in elliptical orbits. "Scientists don't simply sit down and write out correct theories from scratch. Ideas evolve over time. Different people contribute different bits and pieces, good ideas are mixed with bad ideas, observations are improved, new ideas are invented, and the good ideas are slowly sifted out from the ideas that don't work."

2. Although Ptolemy's system is no longer the accepted view of the universe, was his system "unscientific" by modern standards of science? Explain.
Physics was formerly called natural philosophy. Ptolemy's system consisted of the planets moving in little circles called epicycles and the epicycles themselves moved on larger circles around the earth. He used a total of 39 circles dictating the motions of the sun, moon, and five planets of the time. he accounted for these motions with the circular paths allowed by philosophy. He combined his work with the physical ideas of Aristotle which were that the celestial bodies were attached to crystal spheres whose motions carried the planets and stars allong. The motions of the planets were considered natural at the time, therefore, no further explanation was required. Despite the fact that Ptolemy's work is nonmathematical and no longer the accepted view of the universe, does not make his system 'unscientific'. He had hypotheses and theories. He created a very famous scientific system, that was widely accepted for some time. He was wrong in the end, but "it's worth remembering, however, that modern science didn't exist until after this story already ended." "The geocentric system of Ptolemy, with all of its wheels-within-wheels, was the last major innovation in astronomy for fourteen centuries."

3. Was Copernicus's system an improvement over Ptolemy's? Why?
Copernicus worked out the mathematics of the heliocentric system as methodically as Ptolemy had done for the geocentric system. This working-out was essential to the acceptance of the ideo of heliocentricism. Copernicus used mathematics, asserted that the earth actually moves around the sun and rotates on its axis, and destroyed the Arsitotle's view that everything has a natural place. Unfortunately, since the planets don't move in circles and since some old Greek observations were mistaken, Copernicus reintroduced epicycles to his system. Copernicus's system was definately an improvement over Ptolemy's. He brought about quite a few important ideas that Ptolemy didn't. His work was also used by professional astronomers to make new tables of planetary positions and aided navigation and calendars. "Once change and instability were allowed by the introduction of heliocentricism as a viable alternative to the traditional universe, there was no way to keep further novelties from being invented and proposed."

4. In what ways have scientists' preconceptions gotten in the way of science?
The Greek philosophers and astronomers that were followers of Pythagoras worked to uncover world systems to explain the motions of celestial bodies in a way that was consistent with their philosophy.
Plato was a funny person. He relyed on idealizations and he believed that the circle was the perfect shape and therefore all the planets must travel in circular paths.
Kepler assumed that the planets traveled in circles, but he eventually gave up this preconception in desperation because he saw that he could find a perfect fit to Brahe's planet position points with ellipses. "No one before Kepler would have given up their metaphysical presuppositions just because the data didn't fit."
Galileo was forced to deny Copericanism in the end, and the Church rejected heliocentricism for centuries.

5. A common conception is that scientists work alone and in isolation from other ideas. Do you agree? Why?
Absolutely not. Scientists, build off of previous discoveries. They can't be completely closed off from other ideas or the world in general, or nothing would be accomplished. They referred to their philosophies, Copernicus worked off from where Ptolemy left off. The Church was always a major influence. Kepler and Tycho are the perfect example of scientist working together and collaborating. Kepler began insisting that the relationships he found must describe the actual paths of the planets. Then Tycho Brahe came along and had the resources to build new instruments of his own design to make measurements of planetary postions. After he died, Kepler picked up Brahe's measurements and continued where he left off and used his points to discover that the planets moved in elliptical orbits. Galileo technically ripped off someone's else's idea for the telescope and claimed it as his own. He then, however, turned in up to the sky and made many important discoveries. He presented the idea of Copernicanism. Hmm, whose name is in that word... Copernicus? How would scientist come up with that if they were closed off on their own. "Different combinations of good ideas are tried, and eventually a coherent picture emerges."

6. How does technology affect progress in science?
Technology definately affects progress in science. Galileo needed the telescope to make many of his discoveries. Tycho Brahe needed those resources to make his own instruments to measure the positions of the planets. Technology is a major part. That is why some of the early discoverers based their discoveries on philosophy, religion, or idealizations because that was all that they had at the time. They used mathematics and it became more accurate as time went on. Calculations became more advanced and fitting. Kepler made laws. Newton made laws. Descartes introduced the concept of inertia. As time goes on and technology advances, even today, we are able to discover more and improve and even disprove prior beliefs.